Ias Mains Essay Question Paper 2008 Ram

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1979

Paper-I
1. Mark any fifteen of the following on the map supplied to you and give descriptive notes on, them:
(i) Avanti
(ii) Asirgarh
(iii) Amaravati
(iv) Aihole
(v) Brahmagiri
(vi) Daulatabad
(vii) Fathrpur Sikri
(viii) Golkonda
(ix) Gangaikondacholapuram
(x) Hampi
(xi) Jaunpur
(xii) Kapilavastu
(xiii) Kanauj
(xiv) Kanchipuram
(xv) Lothal
(xvi) Paithan
(xvii) Panipat
(xviii) Ranthambhor
(xix) Rupar
(xx) Samugarh
(xxi) Salsette
(xxii) Tamralipti
(xxiii) Takshashila
(xxiv) Talikota
(xxv) Somnath
(xxvi) Kalinjar
(xxvii) Mandu
(xxviii)Warangal
(xxiv) Murshidabad
Section A
2. Give an appraisal of town planning of the Indus cities and evaluate the various reasons for their
decline.
3. Give an account of the Geography of the Vedic texts and describe the social life during the Vedic
times.
4. Discuss the nature of Ashoka’s Dhamma. Was it responsible for the downfall of his empire?
5. Describe the expansion of the Gupta empire under Samudragupta with the help of the Allahabad
pillar inscription.
6. Discuss the contribution of the Pallavas to South Indian art. Was this art wholly indigenous?
Section B
7. Describe the village administration of the Chola period as known from the Uttaramerur inscriptions.
8. Bring out the essential features of the administration of
Ala-ud-din Khalji.
9. Give an account of the polity and society of Vijayanagara empire under
Krishnadevaraya.
10. In which respects did the policies of Aurangzeb contribute to the disintegration of the Mughal
empire?
11. Examine the economic condition of the rural agricultural classes and of the urban artisans and traders
during the Mughal period.
Paper-II
Section A

1. Assess critically the economic impact of the British rule in India till the end of the nineteenth
century.
2. “1858 is the Great Divide in modern Indian history, as the policy, practice and ideals of the
government that followed differed fundamentally from the government of the Company which it
displaced.” Discuss.
3. Examine the main trends in social reform and social change in India between 1829 and 1929.
4. Discuss the nature, methods and activities of the Terrorist Revolutionary Movement and assess its
place in India’s Freedom Struggle.
5. Analyze the circumstances, between 1942 and 1947, that led to freedom and partition of India.
Section B (Modern World)
6. The period 1500 to 1700 in Europe has been called ‘the heyday of the Commercial Revolution.’
Explain the causes that led to this Revolution & examine its impact on society.
7. What do you understand by Imperialism? How did it affect the people of Asia in the nineteenth
century?
8. What were the ideals of the French Revolution of 1789? How far is it correct to say that it overthrew
mercantilism and the surviving relics of feudalism and contributed to the political supremacy of the
middle class?
9. Account for the rise of militarism in Japan between the two World Wars. How did it affect the peace
of the world?
10. “Holland was engaged in a systematic exploitation of Indonesia in the nineteenth century.”
Elucidate.
11. Discuss the internal problem of China after the First World War and account for the establishment of
Communist rule in the China in 1949.

1980

Paper-I
1. Mark any fifteen of the following on the map supplied to you and give descriptive notes on them:
(i) Amber
(ii) Ahmadnagar
(iii) Anegondi
(iv) Badami
(v) Bassein
(vi) Bidar
(vii) Chanderi
(viii) Chittor
(ix) Arikamedu
(x) Devagiri
(xi) Gaur
(xii) Halebid
(xiii) Ikkeri
(xiv) Kalibangan
(xv) Jinji
(xvi) Burzahom
(xvii) Dvarasamudra
(xviii) Nalanda
(xix) Nagarjunakonda
(xx) Nasik
(xxi) Pattadakal
(xxii) Penugonda
(xxiii) Fran
(xxiv) Purandar Fort
(xxv) Gulbarga
(xxvi) Sasaram
(xxvii) Sikandara
(xxviii) Tanjore
(xxix) Kausambi
(xxx) Mamallapuram
Section A
2. Discuss the trade, cultural contacts and the extents of the Indus Civilization within and outside India
and describe in detail any one of the Indus sites within India.
3. Discuss the political pattern and the major religious ideas and rituals of the Vedic age.
4. Critically examine the sources for the study of Mauryan dynasty. How are they useful in
understanding the Mauryan administration?
5. Discuss the ancient Indian contacts with South-East Asia with reference to causes, chronology and
original home of the migrators. What was the impact of these contacts on the art of Kambuja and
Java?
6. Examine the development of religion, literature and fine arts under the
Gupta’s.
Section B
7. Give an account of the impact of Islam on Indian culture in respect of society, religion and fine arts.
8. Describe the development of Chola power under Rajaraja and Rajendra I. Form an estimate of their
cultural contributions.
9. Discuss the patterns of land revenue system developed in Medieval India and examine their
significant features.
10. Discuss the origin of the Vijayanagara Kingdom. Do you agree with the view that Krishnadevaraya
was an ideal ruler of this dynasty?
11. Trace the development of Maratha power under Shivaji.
Paper-II
Section A (Modern India)
1. “The poverty of the Indian people was the consequence of the Government’s land revenue and
taxation policy!” Discuss this statement with reference to British rule in India in the 19th Century.
2. Critically examine the nature of the Revolt of 1857. How did it affect the British policy in India after
1858?
3. Describe briefly the ideals and programme of the Indian National Congress between 1885 and 1905
and assess official response to it.
4. What were the circumstances that led Mahatma Gandhi to start the Non-cooperation Movement?
Examine its contribution to India’s struggle for freedom.
5. Write a brief essay on the peasant movement in India between 1921 and 1947.
Section B (Modern World)
6. Give an account of the revolutionary developments in agriculture in western Europe between 16th
and 18th centuries. How far were they affected by the Commercial Revolution?
7. Explain the main features of the Technological Revolution and discuss its impact on society.
8. Trace the various stages that led to the Unification of Italy between 1848 and 1870.
9. What were the causes for the success of Bolshevik Revolution of 1917? Discuss its significance in
the history of the world.
10. ‘The period 1919 to 1945 is important in the history of Egypt for the explanation of its resources by
Great Britain and rise of strong nationalism’. Discuss.
11. ‘The years 1840 to 1860 confronted the Ching dynasty and the people of China with unprecedented
crises due to imperialist designs of western powers’. Discuss critically.

1981

Paper-I
Section A

1. Mark any fifteen of the following on the map supplied to you and give descriptive notes on them:
(i) Ahichchatra
(ii) Aihole
(iii) Bamiyan
(iv) Bharukachcha
(v) Bokhgaya
(vi) Chanhudaro
(vii) Ellora
(viii) Girnar
(ix) Hastinapura
(x) Kalibangan
(xi) Kausambi
(xii) Madurai
(xiii) Mahishmati
(xiv) Muziris
(xv) Nagarjunakonda
(xvi) Poompuhar
(xvii) Purushapura
(xviii) Rajgir
(xix) Shabazgarhi
(xx) Sopara
(xxi) Sravanabelgola
(xxii) Sravasti
(xxiii) Tamralipti
(xxiv) Thanesar
(xxv) Tdsali
(xxvi) Ujjain
(xxvii) Vaisali
(xxviii) Vijayanti
(xxix) Vatapi
(xxx) Vidisa
2. Bring out the elements of change and continuity in the domestic and foreign policies of
Ashoka.
3. How far do the coins of the Gupta’s provide clues regarding trends in economy, polity, religion and
arts? Discuss them in the light of corroborating evidence from archaeology and literature
4. Discuss critically the main aspects of polity and society under the Pallavas?
Section B

5. Write short answers of not more than 200 words each for any three of the following questions:
(i) How did Sankaracharya seek to integrate the different religions cults in India ?
(ii) What were the aims of Alauddin Khalji behind his market regulations, and how far were they
achieved?
(iii) Examine the major contributions of the Sur rulers to the administrative system.
(iv) Why did the Marathas fail in establishing a lasting empire in India?
6. Examine the factors which were responsible for opening and development of European trade in-India
during the 16th and 17th centuries.
7. Explain with illustrative detail the part played by the following factors in the disintegration of the
Mughal empire:
(a) Aurangzeb’s alleged departure from the policies of his predecessors,
(b) Inherent defects of the Mansab and Jagir system. and
(c) Growth of new political forces in the provinces.
8. Identify the traces of Persian and Rajput traditions and show how they were synthesized
in the field of painting, architecture and literature at the Mughal court.
Paper-II
Section A (Modern India)
1. Write critical notes on any three of the following in about 200 words each:
(a) Consequences of the ruin of handicraft industries under the rule of the East India Company.
(b) Impact of western contact on social changes half of 19th century in the first
(c) Significance of the Swadeshi Movement 1905-07 in the freedom struggle.
(d) Gandhiji’s role in solving the communal problem.
2. Trace the circumstances that led to the introduction of the Permanent Settlement in Bengal. Discuss
its impact on landlords, peasants and the Government.
3. Give a brief account of the industrial and agricultural policy of the Government of India between
1858 and 1914. How far is it correct to say that it was more in the interest of British capital than the
Indian people?
4. Assess the role of the Left Wing within the Indian National Congress between 1920 and 1947.
Section B (Modern World)

5. Write critical notes on any threes of the following in about 200 words each:
(a) Theory of ‘The New imperialism’ after 1870.
(b) Effect of British liberalism on the social or economic life of the people of England.
(c) Lenin’s role in the Russian Revolution of 1917.
(d) Importance of the Opium War in the history of China.
6. Give a critical account of the progress of merchantalism in the 17th century. How far is it correct to
say that it paved the way for the Industrial Revolution?
7. ‘Napoleon kindled the national sentiment but German unity was achieved by Bismarck.’ Discuss.
8. What was the culture system in the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) during the 19th century? Why
was it dismantled?

1982

Paper-I
Section A
1. Write short answers of not more than 200 words each on any three of the following:
(a) Was India civilized before the advent of the Aryans? State briefly the extent and striking
features of the earlier civilization, if any.
(b) Do you think that the economic factors were alone responsible for the disintegration of the
Mauryan Empire?
(c) How far is it correct to say that the Indians of the ancient period indulged only metaphysical
things and not in the development of pure sciences?
(d) Examine the role of guilds in the economic life of ancient India.
2. Discuss the cultural impact of India of the South-East Asia during the ancient period.
3. Discuss the conditions of economic life in the age of the
Guptas.
4. Trace the origin and development of the political authority of the Chalukyas of Badami and discuss
their contribution to religion and architecture.
Section B
5. Mark any fifteen of the following on the map supplied to you and give descriptive notes:
(i) Agra
(ii) Ahmednagar
(iii) Ajmer
(iv) Attock
(v) Bidar
(vi) Bijapur
(vii) Burhanpur
(viii) Chaul
(ix) Chittod (Chittor)
(x) Champaner
(xi) Dabhol
(xii) Daulatabad
(xiii) Fatehpur Sikri
(xiv) Gingee
(xv) Golconth
(xvi) Cwaljor
(xvii) Hampi
(xviii) Janjiar
(xix) Jaunpur
(xx) Mandu
(xxi) Multan
(xxii) Panipat
(xxiii) Pune
(xxiv) Raigad (Raigarh)
(xxv) Ranthambhor
(xxvi) Surat
(xxvii) Talikota
(xxviii) Tanjavur
(xxix) Ujjain
(xxx) Vengurla
6. Critically examine the Views of Balban, Ala-ud-din Khalji and the Tughluq on the nature of
Kingship under the Delhi Sultanate
7. Analyze the cause of the agrarian crisis of the Mughal Empire and briefly discuss the agrarian
aspects of the peasant revolt against the Empire.
8. Review the efforts made by Shivaji in consolidating his power in the Deccan in the seventeenth
century.
Paper-II
Section A (Modern India)
1. Comment an any three of the following statements in about 200 words each:
(a) ‘Baksar takes rank amongst the most decisive battles ever fought.’
(b) The Reforms of 1909 introduced ‘a cardinal problem and ground of controversy at
every revision of the Indian electoral system.’
(c) Ram Mohan Roy ‘presents a most instructive and inspiring study for the New India of which
he is the type and pioneer
(d) The Cripps Mission gave India “a post-dated cheque.”
2. Trace the course and explain the consequences of the drain of wealth from Bengal in the eighteenth
century.
3. Describe the nature of Indian Nationalism with special reference to the character of its leadership iii
the period between 1885 and 1905.
4. Tribal revolts were a reaction to an alien, unfeeling administration. Elucidate with reference to the
British tribal policy in Eastern India in the nineteenth century.
Section B (Modern World)
5. Comment on any three of the following statements in about 200 words each
(a) ‘Imperialism and Colonialism have long employed as instruments of national policy.’
(b) ‘The characteristic motive of this period (1830-1871) was not so much Liberalism as
Nationalism.’
(c) ‘Japanese policy in relation to Manchuria reacted back upon Japan affecting her both
economically and politically.’
(d) ‘Mehemet Ali, half an illiterate barbarian, half a consummate statesman, was wholly a
genius.’
6. Trace the growth of Capitalism in England in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. How did it
affect the Wage System in the country?
7. Critically examine the main features of the foreign policy of Nazi Germany.
8. How did the Treaty Port System in China develop between 1840 and 1860 ? What was its
inference on Chinese attitude to foreigners?

1983

Paper-I
Section A
1. Mark any fifteen of the following on the map supplied to you and give short descriptive notes on
them:
(i) Amaravati
(ii) Arikamedu
(iii) Avanti
(iv) Bedsa
(v) Belur
(vi) Bhrigukachha
(vii) Dwarka
(viii) Elephanta
(ix) Halebid
(x) Kanchipuram
(xi) Kaushambi
(xii) Kurukshetra
(xiii) Lothal
(xiv) Madurai
(xv) Mahabalipuram
(xvi) Maski
(xvii) Nagarjunkonda
(xviii) Nalanda
(xix) Nasik
(xx) Patliputra
(xxi) Pratishthana
(xxii) Rajagriha
(xxiii) Rupar
(xxiv) Sanchi
(xxv) Sarnath
(xxvi) Shravasti
(xxvii) Sopar
(xxviii) Tamralipti
(xxix) Varanasi
(xxx) Vatap
2. Examine the contribution of Vedic culture in the sphere of social institutions and religion. Was
there any continuity between the Indus and the Vedic cultures in this respect?
3. Analyze Ashoka’s policy of Dhamma and account for its failure.
4. Who were the Pallavas ? Review briefly their contribution to art and administration?
Section B
5. Write short answers of not more than 100 words each on any three of the following:
(a) Why was Firuz Tughluq regarded as an ideal Muslim king of medieval times?
(b) What was the most significant contribution of Kabir and Guru Nanakdev to Bhakti
movement?
(c) Do you think that the reign of Krishnadevaraya inaugurated a new epoch in the history of
Vijayanagar?
(d) What motivated Akbar to enunciate Din-i-Ilahj ? How far did he succeed in spreading it?
6. Critically examine the economic regulations of Ala-ud-din
Khalji.
7. Review briefly the methods of land-revenue assessment adopted by the
Mughals.
8. How far did Peshwa Bajirao I succeed in establishing Maratha supremacy in the Deccan and political
hagemony in the North?
Paper-II
Section A (Modern India)
1. Comment on arty three of the following statements in about 200 words each:
(a) The Treaty of Bassein, 1802 was “a step which changed the footing on which we [the English
stood in western India. It trebled the English responsibilities in an instant.”
(b) The Permanent Settlement of land revenue in Bengal was a “bold, brave and wise measure.”
(c) “The Mutiny was not inevitable in 1857, but it was inherent in the constitution of the
Empire.”
(d) The Cabinet Mission Plan “seemed to open an avenue for the reconciliation of a united India
with Muslim autonomy’.”
2. Review the relations of the Government of India with Indian States in the period 1858-1918 with
particular reference to the cases where the doctrine of paramount was asserted by the Government.
3. Explain the main features of Montford Reforms. How far did they implement the policy of
administrative devolution?
4. Trace the industrial growth of British India after the First World War. How did the Government’s
tariff policy influence the growth?
Section B (Modern World)
5. Comment on any three of the following statements in about 200 words each:
(a) “Mercantilist philosophy was based upon a belief that private & social interests are not
necessarily in harmony.”
(b) “The writings of the philosophers had a tremendous influence on the minds of the people and
created a revolutionary awakening in their minds and formed the intellectual creed of the
French Revolution”
(c) “The bold knight, Lenin, having rescued the fair maiden of the Revolution from the evil
sorcerer, Kerensky, everyone lived happily hereafter.”
(d) “ ….. nascent nationalism in Indo-China developed within both an Asian and a European
context with but scanty reference in either case to traditionalist considerations.”
6. Trace the course of the movement for Italian Unification from 1848 with special reference to the
contribution of Mazzini.
7. Identify the main strands in the Egyptian nationalist movement in the first half of the present century
and explain the role played in it by Zaghlul Pasha.
8. Review the political circumstances in China in the years 1945-49 leading to the establishment of the
Communist rule in the land. How did the United States seek to resolve the conflict between the
Nationalists and the communists in the period?

1984

Paper -I
Section A
1. Write short answers of not more than 200 words each on any three of the following:
(a) How do you account for the decline of the major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization?
(b) What was the position of Varuna in the Vedic system of Gods?
(c) What were the causes of the origin of the heterodox sects in the sixth century BC?
(d) What was the contribution of the Chalukyas of Badami to Indian architecture?
2. Examine the administrative system of the Mauryas and discuss briefly the causes of disintegration of
the Mauryan Empire.
3. How was overseas trade organized in South India up to 300 A. D.? Discuss this with special
reference to Roman trade and point out its impact on Indian economy.
4. Critically examine the sources of information for the study of Harshavardhan and discuss his
religious policy.
Section B
5. Mark any fifteen of the following places on the map supplied to you and give brief descriptive notes
on them:
(i) Ahmedabad
(ii) Ajmer
(iii) Aurangabad
(iv) Bikaner
(v) Baroda
(vi) Calicut
(vii) Cutch
(viii) Deogiri
(ix) Fatehpur Sikri
(x) Gulbarga
(xi) Halebid
(xii) Hospet
(xiii) Indore
(xiv) Jaisalmer
(xv) Jodhpur
(xvi) Kalyan
(xvii) Kanyakumari
(xviii) Kucknow
(xix) Meerut
(xx) Murshidabad
(xxi) Nasik
(xxii) Panjim
(xxiii) Raichur
(xxiv) Rameshwaram
(xxv) Shravari Belgola
(xxvi) Sommath
(xxvii) Tirupati
(xxviii) Udaipur
(xxix) Vasar (Bassein)
(xxx) Warangal
6. Do you agree with the view that Muhammad Tughluq was transcendent failure’ ? Why did he fail to
achieve the ideals he had set for himself?
7. Which were the major European Powers engaged in trade with India in the medieval period ? How
did they organise their trade and what were the chief items of trade?
8. What was the contribution of the Mughals to the development of education and literature?
Paper – II
Section A(Modern India)
1. Comment an any three of the following statements in about 200 words each:
(a) ‘We have no right to seize Sind, yet we shall do so and a very advantageous, useful, humane
piece of rascality it will be.’
(b) ‘ ……. if we could keep a number of Nature States without political power, but as royal
instruments, we should exist in India as long as our naval supremacy was maintained.’
(c) In British India ‘the impact of the government on the people meant essentially the impact of
government on the village.’
(d) ‘Curzon’s political obtusely created a breach between government and people which was
never wholly closed in the remaining forty-two years of British rule.’
2. Trace the course of the Anglo-Maratha relations in the first two decades of the nineteenth century.
Account for the ultimate defeat of the Maratha power by the British.
3. Explain the essential features of the ryotwari system of land revenue with special reference to
Thomas Munro’s contribution to its evolution.
4. Review the main trends in the Social Movements in India from 1900 to 1947 with particular
reference to the changing position .of women in the country.
Section B (Modern World)
5. Comment on any three of the following statements in about 200 words each:
(a) ‘If imperialism is viewed as a phase of the struggle for power between States, its result must
be judged in terms of its role in power politics.’
(b) ‘It is one of the ironies of history that Napoleon was the creator of modern Germany.’
(c) ‘The Treaty of Nanking is the basic act in the imposing but unstable structure of international
relations which governed China for a hundred years.’
(d) Hitler was ‘a creature flung to the top by the tides of revolutionary change, or the
embodiment of the collective unconsciousness of a people obsessed with violence and death.’
6. Account for the growth of Liberalism in Britain in the nineteenth century. How far did it influence
the contemporary social and economic issues-in the country?
7. Identify the main strands in the Nationalist Movement in Indonesia between the two World Wars.
How did Japanese occupation of land influence the course of the Movement?
8. Give a critical account of the Agricultural Revolution in Western Europe in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries. How did it affect the social and economic life of the people?

1985

Paper -I
Section A
1. Mark any fifteen of the following places on the map supplied to you and give brief descriptive notes
on them:
(i) Ajanta
(ii) Atranjikhera
(iii) Ayodhya
(iv) Bharhut
(v) Dhauli
(vi) Ganjam
(vii) Gaya
(viii) Gwalior
(ix) Harappa
(x) Junagadh
(xi) Kalibangan
(xii) Kapilavastu
(xiii) Kanyakubja
(xiv) Khajuraho
(xv) Lothal
(xvi) Manyakheta
(xvii) Mathura
(xviii) Multan
(xix) Nagarjunikonda
(xx) Prayaga
(xxi) Rameshwaram
(xxii) Sakala
(xxiii) Sravana Belgola
(xxiv) Surparaka
(xxv) Tanjore
(xxvi) Taxila
(xxvii) Ujjain
(xxviii)Vaisali
(xxix) Vengi
(xxx) Vikramsila
2. Discuss the geographical area known to the Rigvedic people. Were they familiar with the sea?
3. ‘The Gupta period stands at the center of Indian history.’ Discuss the development of arts and
literature in that Gupta period in the light of this statement.
4. Trace briefly the history of the struggle between the Chalukyas and the
Pailavas. Analyze its causes and bring out its importance.
Section B
5. Write short answers of not more than 200 words on any three of the following:
(a) What were the salient features of the bureaucratic machinery of the Cholas?
(b) Examine the responsibility of Firoz Tughluq for the fall of his dynasty
(c) Where, when and how did Urdu originate?
(d) Was Shivaji a nationalist leader?
6. What were the problems Balban faced? How far did he succeed in solving them? Was he a trendsetter
in his theory of kingship?
7. Discuss briefly the causes that contributed to the religious movements of the fifteenth and
sixteenth centuries. Analyze their approach to the realities of contemporary life.
8. Analyze the religious policy of the Mughal emperors from Akbar to Aurangzeb. How did it affect the
stability of the Mughal empire?
Paper – II
Section A (Modern India)
1. Comment an any three of the following statements in about 200 words each:
(a) “Thus ended the famous battle of Buxar, on which depended the fate of India and which was
as gallantly disputed as was important in its results.”
(b) “Our system acts very much like a sponge, drawing. up all the good things from the banks of
the Ganges, and squeezing them down on the banks of the Thames.”
(c) “On the whole, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the so-called First National War of
Independence. was neither First, nor National, nor a war of Independence.”
(d) “These religion-reform movements were national in content but religious in form. It was in
the later stages of our national existence, that nationalism found exclusively or predominantly
secular forms.”
2. What changes did the British attitude undergo towards the Princely states after 1858? Was the
Government of India Act of 1858 intended to introduce direct relations between the Princes and the
Crown?
3. Identify the main strands in the Civil Disobedience Movement with particular reference to the
changing role of ‘business pressures’ in the country
4. Show how British rule led to the spread of land-lordism in certain parts of India, and how the,
peasant was progressively impoverished under this rule.
Section B (Modem World)
5. Comment on any three of the following statements in about 200 words each:
(a) “What mattered in 1789- and what made men revolutionary almost in spite of
themselves was the whole revolutionary situation’ ; and in producing that situation the work of the
philosophers played no very important role.”
(b) “They have stopped me -from making Italy by diplomacy from the North, 1 will make it by
revolution from the South.”
(c) “Mohammad Mi combined ambition with perspicacity to a greater degree than any other
Oriental ruler of the nineteenth century.”
(d) “The turn of the tide against the Kuomintang, consequently, was due as much to its weakness
as to consequently, was due as much to its weakness as
6. Trace the growth of capitalism in Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Why was
France, as compared to Britain, late in developing the capitalist spirit and the institutional framework
of capitalism?
7. Analyze the causes of the Russian Revolutions of 1917. Why was the second Revolution significant
in more that one way?
8. Critically examine the culture system in the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) during the nineteenth
century. Why was it dismantled?

1986

Paper -I
Section A
1. Write short essays of not more than 200 words on any three of the following:
(a) Democratic elements hi the political system of the early Vedic period.
(b) The role of guilds in the economic life of India from c. 200 B: C. to c. A. 0. 300
(c) The significance of the policy o matrimonial alliances for the expansion and consolidation of
the Gupta empire.
(d) The contributions of the Pallavas to Indian architecture.
2. ‘On circumstantial evidence Indra stands convicted’. Explain, and discuss briefly different views
about a sudden end of the Indus Valley civilization. How would you explain the presence of those
elements in Indian culture and civilization which are found to have existed in the Indus Valley
period?
3. Discuss critically the relative importance of the different source for the history of the Mauryan
period.
4. Harsha is described as ‘the lord of the whole of north India’. Determine the extent of his empire and
discuss his political relations with Sasanka, Bhaskaravarman and Pulakesin II.
Section B
5. Marks any fifteen of the following places on the map supplied to you. Also give brief descriptive
notes on places marked on the map:
(i) Agra
(ii) Ahmadnagar
(iii) Anhilware
(iv) Attock
(v) Bidar
(vi) Cambay
(vii) Champaner
(viii) Chittor
(ix) Chunar
(x) Daultabad
(xi) Dvarasamudra
(xii) Gaurs
(xiii) Gwalior
(xiv) Jaunpur
(xv) Kalinjar
(xvi) Koil
(xvii) Madura
(xviii) Mandu
(xix) Panipat
(xx) Rameshwaram
(xxi) Ranthambhor
(xxii) Sarhind
(xxiii) Sasaram
(xxiv) Sailkot
(xxv) Surat
(xxvi) Tanjore
(xxvii) Thatta
(xxviii) Ujjain
(xxix) Vijayanagara
(xxx) Warangal
6. ‘The period of Delhi Sultans witnessed the emergence of Indo-Persian culture’ Discuss the statement
with reference to developments m the fields of language,
7. Bring out the significance of the reign of Sher Shah in the history of India.
8. Account for the rise of the Marathas as a political power. How did they influence the course of
history?
Paper – II
Section A (Modern India)
1. Comment on any three of the following statements in about 200 words each:
(a) ‘Upon the whole, then, I conclude that the treaty of Bassein was wise, just and a politic
measure.’
(b) ‘Rammohun thus presents a most instructive and inspiring study for the New India of which
he is the type and pioneer.’
(c) ‘The roots of Moplah discontent were clearly agrarian….’
(d) ‘It is sometimes asked by Ruling Chiefs, as well as by the public in India and in Europe what
our policy towards Native States is. I can tell you that the basis of the policy was laid in
Queen Victoria’s Proclamation of 1858 and repeated in the Coronation message of His
Majesty the King Emperor.’
2. Bring out the pattern of commercialization of agriculture in the 19th century. Was it a forced process
for the vast majority of poorer peasants?
3. Discuss the basic features of the judicial administration under the East India Company. Did the
British introduce the modern concept of the rule of law in India?
4. Account for the rise and growth of Left-wing within the Congress. Did Jawaharlal Nehru believe in a
socialistic approach to Indian and world problems and if so why?
Section B (World History)
5. Comment on any three of the following statements in about 200 words each:
(a) ‘The novelty in sixteenth century mercantilism its extension from city to nation and the
transfer of its chief agency from local guilt to national monarch.’
(b) ‘Napoleon was the child of the Revolution, but in many ways he reversed the aims and
principles of the movement from which he sprang …….
(c) ‘If I could save the Union without freeing-any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by
freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others
alone, I would also do that.’
(d) ‘Under Mustafa Kemal’s dictatorship; Turkey was rapidly natonalized.
6. What is meant by the ‘rediscovery of ancient civilization’? Show how the ‘New Learning’ was a
major element in the beginning of Modern Europe.
7. Discuss the Self-strengthening movement in China.
8. What led to the formation of the Berlin-Rome Tokyo axis? Indicate its impact on international
politics.

1987

Paper -I
Section A
1. Mark any fifteen of the following places on the map supplied to you and give brief descriptive notes
on them:
(i) Aihole
(ii) Amaravati
(iii) Arikmedu
(iv) Bairat
(v) Banawali
(vi) Bodh-Caya
(vii) Burzahom
(viii) Deogarh
(ix) Daimabad
(x) Elephanta
(xi) Ellora
(xii) Fran
(xiii) Hastinapur
(xiv) Kausambi
(xv) Konarak
(xvi) Lauriya Nandangarh
(xvii) Mahabalipuram
(xviii) Maski
(xix) Mathura
(xx) Nalanda
(xxi) Nasik
(xxii) Navdatoli
(xxiii) Piprahwa
(xxiv) Rajagrtha
(xxv) Ropar
(xxvi) Sankisa
(xxvii) Sopara
(xxviii) Tamralipti
(xxix) Vidisha
(xxx) Vikramasila
2. Compare the economic, social and religious life of the Indus Valley (Harappan) people with
that of the early Vedic people and discuss the relative chronology of the Indus and the early Vedic
cultures.
3. Discuss the social & economic factors for the rise of Buddhism How far was it influenced by
Upnisadic thought?
4. ‘Harsha owes his greatness largely not to any real achievements but to formulate descriptions by two
famous men.’ Discuss.
Section B
5. Write short answers of not more than 200 words on any three of the following:
(a) Shankaracharya’s philosophy and its impact
(b) Main sources of information for the history of the 13th century
(c) Significance of the Bhakti Movement
(d) Structure and role of the Maratha Confedency.
6. Critically examine the price control measures of Alauddin Khilji. What was the main objective
behind them and how for was he able to put them into effecter?
7. Discuss the development of art and culture under the Vijayanagar Empire.
8. Bring out the main features of the MANSAB and JAGIR systems with special reference to the reign
of Akbar
Paper – II
Section A (Modem India)
1. Comment on any three of the following statements in about 200 words each:
(a) ‘The revolution of 1760 (Bengal) was really no revolution.’
(b) ‘The British endeavoured as far as possible to live within a Ring-Fence and beyond that they
avoided intercourse with the chiefs.’
(c) ‘The Ilbert Bill was the most extreme but by no means isolated expression of white racism.’
(d) ‘The national democratic awakening of the Indian people found expression of white racism.’
2. Trace the gradual decline of the Indian town handicrafts between 1757 and 1880. In what way did it
contribute to the economic unification of India?
3. Identify the various forms of ‘rural protest’ in India in the second half of the nineteenth century.
Were they expressions of anti-landlord or anti-foreign discontent?4. How would you explain Gandhiji’s ‘rise to power’ or ‘capture’ of national leadership in the course of
1919-20? Was it a very skilful top-level political game?
Section B (World History)
5. Comment on any three of the following statements in about 200 words each:
(a) ‘By 1861, China may be said to have been fully though grudgingly opened to the Westerner.’
(b) ‘The Unification of Germany was the one thing Bismarck was determined to prevent.’
(c) ‘The international situation that confronted the peacemakers in Pairs was in the brutal
realities of history, the result of a temporary redistribution of the balance of power in the
world.’
(d) ‘One of the last Strongholds – of oil imperialism and European colonualism it (Middle East)
cultivates a fiery nationalism as a weapon against foreign oppression’
6. Account for the emergence of the national monarchies in Europe in the sixteenth century. Did the
monarchs build the national states less by design than by chance?
7. How did Japan develop between 1868 and 1894 ? Did the ‘Restoration of Meiji’ mark a sharp break
with the past?
8. Critically examine the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Did he want to introduce a sort of
socialism?

1988

Paper -I
Section A
1. Write short essays of not more than 200 words each on any three of the following:
(a) Position of women in the Rigvedic society
(b) The intellectual revolution in the Sixth Century B.C.
(c) Mauryan court art as an alien grafting
(d) The Maukharis paving the way for the glory of Harshavardhana
2. “The Indus Civilization had an abrupt end.” Discuss the statement and explain how the Indus
Civilization could influence Indian culture in its later history.
3. Brief out the salient features of the religious development in the Post-Maurya period. How was
contemporary art influenced by it?
4. Evaluate the importance of the contributions of the Pallavas in the history of the development of art
and administration in South India.
Section B
5. Mark any fifteen of the following places on the map supplied to you. Also give brief descriptive
notes on the places marked on the map:
(i) Amarkot
(ii) Attock
(iii) Bijapur
(iv) Cambay
(v) Calicut
(vi) Chanderi
(vii) Chaul
(viii) Cuftack
(ix) Diu
(x) Dvarasalnudra
(xi) Fathepur Sikri
(xii) Goa
(xiii) Golkunda
(xiv) Gulbarga
(xv) Hampi
(xvi) Jodhpur
(xvii) Kalpi
(xviii) Kanauj
(xix) Karigra
(xx) Masulipatan
(xxi) Multan
(xxii) Pondicherry
(xxiii) Raichur
(xxiv) Rajmahal
(xxv) Rameshwaram
(xxvi) Rohtas
(xxvii) Satan
(xxviii) Talikot
(xxix) Tanjore
(xxx) Tarain
6. Bring out the salient features of the polity & social structure of the Rajputs. To what extent were they
responsible for the weakness of the to foreign invaders?
7. Was the state in the Sultanate period a theocracy? Discuss the new orientation of state policies and
administrative principles under Muhammad bin Tughluq.
8. “The expansion of Mughal empire in Deccan brought about its decline”. Discuss brought about its
decline”. Discuss.
Paper – II
Section A (Modern India)

1. Comment an any three of the following statements in about 200 words each:
(a) “Whatever might have been its original character, it (Rebellion of 1857) soon became 3
symbol of challenge to the mighty British power in India.”
(b) “The impact of government on the people meant essentially the impact of government on the
village.”
(c) “Dyarchy was Introduced with high hopes and it must be said that, oil a theoretical analysis
and if worked under ideal conditions, it is not without merits,”
(d) “The Simla Conference (1945) afforded the last opportunity of the forces of nationalism to
fight a reargued action to preserve the integrity of the country and when the battle was lost,
the waves of communalism quickly engulfed it.”
2. Review the educational policy of the English East India Company. To what extent did it serve the
imperial interests of Great Britain?
3. Discuss briefly the tribal revolts in Eastern India from 1817 to 1857. Were they directed against land
lordism and colonialism ?
4. At different periods and at various levels, the National Movement assumed social, cultural and
economic dimensions. Amplify.
Section B (World History)

5. Comment on any three of the following statement in about 200 words each:
(a) “Attempts to put mercantilist doctrine into practice characterized the history of most of the
nations of Western European in the 16th and 17th centuries.”
(b) “At the news of the Declaration of Independence crowds gathered to cheer, fire guns and
cannon and ring church bells in Philadelphia. Boston and other places, but there were many
people in America who did not rejoice”.
(c) “…… the European nations in emphasizing their solidarity, their European’s
in dealing with Asian countries inevitably gave rise to a feeling of Asianness.”
(d) “The Anglo-Japanese Treaty (1962) marks a milestone in the development of Japan as an
Asiatic power.”
6. Examine the view that the thirty years’ war (1618-1648) was essentially a contest between the
Bourbon and Hapsburg houses for mastery of the Continent of Europe. How for did it settle the
issue?
7. Why is the period from 1842 to 1900 considered as half a century of humiliations
in the history of China? What was the reaction of China?
8. Write a critical note on the process of decolonization accelerated by the second World War.

1989

Paper -I
Section A
1. Mark any fifteen of the following places on the map supplied to you. Also give brief descriptive
notes on the places marked on the map:
(i) Ahichhatra
(ii) Atranjikhera
(iii) Ayodhya
(iv) Brahmagiri
(v) Burzahom
(vi) Chamba
(vii) Dhauli
(viii) Dwarka
(ix) Hastinapur
(x) Kalibangan
(xi) Kanchipuram
(xii) Kapilavastu
(xiii) Karnasuvarna
(xiv) Khajuraho
(xv) Lothal
(xvi) Madhyamika
(xvii) Madurai
(xviii) Nagaijunikonda
(xix) Paithan
(xx) Pragyotishpur
(xxi) Puskalavati
(xxii) Sanchi
(xxiii) Sarnath
(xxiv) Surparaka
(xxv) Tamralipti
(xxvi) Tanjore
(xxvii) Thaneswar
(xxviii)Vaisali
(xxix) Vatapi
2. Discuss briefly the development of religious ideas and rituals in the Vedic age. Do they show any
parallelism with the religion of the Indus Civilization?
3. Discuss the comparative merit of the Arthasastra, the Indica and
Ashoka Inscriptions as sources for the administration, socio-economic conditions and religious life in the Mauryan period.
4. Discuss critically the role Harsha played in the history of his times.
Section B
5. Write short essays of not more than 200 word each on any three of the following:
(a) The significance of Alauddin Khilji economic regulations for his imperialsim.
(b) The empire-builder in North India of the sixteenth century.
(c) The Mughals and the European trading companies
(d) The emergence of composite culture during the period 16th to 18th centuries.
6. Discuss the salient features of Indian society on the eve of the campaigns of Mahmud of
Ghazni, with particular reference to the observations made by Al-Biruni.
7. ‘Art, literature and culture reached a high level of development in the Vijayanagar Empire.’ Discuss.
8. Analyses the distinguishing features of the land revenue system under the Mughals and point out its
influence on the strength of the Mughal State.
Paper – II
Section A
1. Comment an any three of the following statements in about 200 words each:
(a) ‘……. the hunt of the Pindaris became merged in the Third Maratha War.’
(b) ‘If the paramount power cast its imperial cloak over the princes, it was also entitled to see
that what was sheltered was in the main creditable.’
(c) ‘Nowhere was the influence of the missionaries felt more than in relation to the women’s
movement.’
(d) ‘Curzon was an unconscious catalyst who did not understand, let alone desire, what the new
century was about to bring forth, but who helped it to be born.’
2. What led to the Caste Movements in Western and Southern India? How did they affect the local
socio-political life?
3. Identify the main features of industrial development in India from 1914 to 1947 with special
reference to the emergence of a class of factory laborers.
4. Examine the main aspects of Muslim Leage politics from 1937 to 1947. Was the partition of the
country unavoidable?
Section B
5. Comment on any three of the following statements in about 200 words each:
(a) ‘The discovery of the new world, coinciding with the swift diffusion of printed books, taught
the Europeans that “Truth”, in Bacon’s noble phrase, “is the daughter not of authority, but of
time.’
(b) Louis XIV’ was the first French sovereign to make of monarchy a serious profession.’
(c) ‘The Eastern Question has always been an international question.’
(d) ‘Extreme nationalism of the Fascist Variety has various faces in various countries, but it has
everywhere certain common characteristics.’
6. The French Revolution (1789) really achieved far less than what it intended to effect. Do you agree?
7. Write a critique on the partition of Africa from 1870 to 1914, with particular reference to Germany’s
imperial designs in the Continent.
8. Trace the growth of Arab nationalism after the, First World War. How far was it a reaction to oil
imperialism?

1990

Paper -I
Section A
1. Write short essays of not more than 200 word each on any three of the following:
(a) The formulation of social system in the later Vedic period
(b) The Maurya policy of regulating and controlling economic activities
(c) Indian participation in the silk trade through Central Asia
(d) The economic prosperity in the Gupta period.
2. ‘The Indus civilization did not have an abrupt appearance.’ Discuss the statement. How does the
Indus civilization stand, in view of its geographical expansion and chronology, in relations to the
Vedic civilization?
3. Trace the rise of Magadhan imperialism up to the times of the Nandas with particular reference to its
policy towards the non-monarchical state. Discuss the factors that contributed to its success.
4. Make a comparative study of the administrative system and development of art under the Pallavas
of Kanchi and the Chalukyas of Vatapi.
Section B
5. Mark any fifteen of the following places on the map supplied to you. Also give brief descriptive
notes on the places marked on the map:
(i) Ahmadnagar
(ii) Badaun
(iii) Baran
(iv) Bhatnair
(v) Bidar
(vi) Chunar
(vii) Daman
(viii) Gangaikon-dacholapuram
(ix) Hansi
(x) Jajnagar
(xi) Jaunpur
(xii) Junagadh
(xiii) kalyani
(xiv) Kanhwa
(xv) Lakhnawati
(xvi) Mahoba
(xvii) Madura
(xviii) Malkhed
(xix) Mandu
(xx) Masulipatam
(xxi) Ranthambore
(xxii) Sahasaram
(xxiii) Sandabur
(xxiv) Serampur
(xxv) Srirangapatnam
(xxvi) Talakad
(xxvii) Thatta
(xxviii)Trichinopoly
(xxix) Uttaramerur
(xxx) Warangal
6. ‘Sankaracharya brought about a synthesis of ideas and philosophies.’ Discuss the statement and
analyses the historical significance of his life and throught.
7. ‘Firuz Tugluq has been overshadowed by Muhammad Tughluq.’ In the light of this statement
evaluate the significance of the policies and actions of Firuz Tughluq.
8. ‘In medieval Indian history Akbar is unique for his religiopolitical ideas and policies.’ Discuss the
statement and compare Akbar with Sher Shah in regard to their administrative policies and revenue
administration.
Paper – II
Section A
1. Comment an any three of the following statements in about 200 words each:
(a) ‘We have no right to seize Sind, yet we shall do so, and a very advantageous, useful and
human piece of rascality it will be.’
(b) ‘The hey-day of the British power in India was also the high noon of laissez faire’ economic
doctrine.’
(c) ‘The new India was not to be built up, as late nineteenth century patriots had thought, by
copious draught from the past, but rather by frequent injections from the energetic
contemporary west.’
(d) ‘Lord Mountbatten came with an order to orgarlise retreat, in military
parlance an operation.’
2. The roots of the Moplah uprising (1921) were clearly agrarian. Do you agree?
3. What was the Anglicisit-Orientalist controversy about? How was it resolved and with what results?
4. ‘The National Movement has shown concern for problems other than the constitutional one.’ Discuss
the factors that helped the rise of a left wing in the Indian National Congress.
Section B
5. Comment on any three of the following statements in about 200 words each:
(a) ‘The Renaissance was the discovery of the world arid of man.’
(b) ‘The American war of Independence transformed Europeans as well as America.’
(c) ‘The Industrial Revolution put mobility in the place of stability.’
(d) ‘The comparison between Caviar’s and Bismarck’s achievements reveals ‘striking points of
resemblance and no less striking points of dissimilarity.’
6. What issues involved in the conflict between the King and Parliament in England in the seventeenth
century? Discuss.
7. The treaties made at the Paris Peace conference in 1919-20 were replete with unstable compromises,
reflecting more materialism than idealism. Elucidate.
8. How did the Japanese occupation of South-East Asian countries during the Second World War give a
boost to nationalize in the regions? Explain with examples.

1991

Paper -I
Section A
1. Write brief essays of not more than 200 word each on any three of the following:
(a) External trade of the Harappans
(b) Contents of Asoka’s dhamma and reasons for Asoka’s keenness to propagate dhamma
(c) Origins, chronology, characteristics and geographical spread of Gandhara art
(d) Origins and meaning of the samanta system
2. In what ways does religion as reflected in the Vedic texts differ from the religion of the Gupta
period?
3. In what ways would the period of the Pallavas of the Kanchi and that of the Chalukyas of Badami
mark the beginning of a new historical phase in peninsular India?
4. Discuss the scientific and technological developments in ancient India.
Section B
5. Mark any fifteen of the following places on the map supplied to you. Also give brief descriptive
notes on the places marked on the map:
(i) Amber
(ii) Anhilwara
(iii) Asirgarh
(iv) Bayana
(v) Bijapur
(vi) Burhanpur
(vii) Cambay
(viii) Champaner
(ix) Chanderi
(x) Daulatabad
(xi) Fathehpur Sikri
(xii) Gaur
(xiii) Gulbarga
(xiv) Halebid
(xv) Hampi
(xvi) Jalor
(xvii) Kabul
(xviii) kalinjar
(xix) Kanauj
(xx) Lahore
(xxi) Multan
(xxii) Murshidabad
(xxiii) Orchha
(xxiv) Quilon
(xxv) Sambhal
(xxvi) Sirhind
(xxvii) Sonargaon
(xxviii)Surat
(xxix) Tanjore
(xxx) Tarain
6. Critically assess the period of the Cholas in the history of South India.
7. What, in your opinion, was the significance of the extensive military expeditions undertaken during
the time of Alauddin Khalji? Do you think his reign is considered significant in terms of such
expeditions alone?
8. What were the major features of the administrative system of the Mughal State? To what extent did
other Indian powers model their administration on this system in the late medieval period?
Paper – II
Section A
1. Comment any three of the following statements in about 200 words each:
(a) ‘This Anglo-Maratha War covering nearly nine years from the murder of Narayan Rao to the
Treaty of Salbye emphatically discloses the vitality of the Maratha nation which had not been
exhausted either by the disaster of Panipat or the death of their great Peshwa Madhavrao.’
(b) ‘The role of the East India Company proved disastrous to the handicraft industry in India for
a number of reasons.’
(c) ‘The tragedy of Cruzan lay in that, with such abundance of trained talent; he was denied the
crowning qualities. He was never an administrator of the first rank:’

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