Citations And Honor And Essays

Presented at the 2017 Commencement of Franklin & Marshall College

Evelyn Nicolette Farkas is a scholar, foreign policy analyst, essayist and author who, having earned a bachelor's degree in Government and German at Franklin & Marshall College and master's and doctoral degrees from The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University, found her passion in the realm of geopolitics.

From 2012 to 2015, Dr. Farkas served as U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Russia/Ukraine/Eurasia, the Pentagon's top official overseeing military relations with Russia and Ukraine. She advised three secretaries of defense on policies towards Russia and 13 other countries from the Black Sea, Caucasus and Balkan regions, as well as on conventional arms control, earning praise for bringing fresh thinking to Southeast Europe policies, spearheading the expansion of NATO to the Republic of Montenegro and increasing multilateral cooperation throughout Europe.

At the Pentagon, Dr. Farkas also served as senior advisor to the Supreme Allied Commander Europe/the Commander of U.S. European Command, and was special advisor for the Secretary of Defense at the 2012 NATO Summit.

She has served as executive director of the bipartisan Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism and is a former member of the U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee staff, conducting policy and budget oversight of the Pentagon's policy office and far-flung military commands. Dr. Farkas' focus on foreign and defense policy worldwide, combating terrorism, foreign military assistance, peace and stability operations, counternarcotics efforts, homeland defense, and issues regarding the Asia Pacific region and Western Hemisphere informed and shaped national security policy in a time when the threats to U.S. security were as complex and diverse as terrorism, nuclear proliferation, climate change, protecting our energy resources and infrastructure, cyberattacks, and the supposed neutrality of space.

Dr. Farkas was a senior fellow at the American Security Project before she went to the Pentagon, and starting in the late 1990s worked for four years as a professor of international relations at the U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College. She served in Bosnia as a human rights officer for the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe in 1996, 1997, and as an election observer in Afghanistan in 2009.

A prolific writer, Dr. Farkas' essays and opinion pieces have appeared in The New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, The Washington Times, Defense News, and The Boston Globe, and on websites including The Daily Beast, Foreign Policy.com and Politico.com. She is a National Security Contributor with NBC/MSNBC.

Citing Sources

When using another author’s intellectual property (from primary or secondary source material), it is essential that you properly cite your source.  Giving credit not only benefits your credibility as an author, but will also help you avoid plagiarism. Be sure to carefully document all the necessary citation information for your sources while researching to make the process much easier.

There are multiple formats for citation styles, and they vary according to academic discipline. The Modern Language Association (MLA) has a specific format for citation information that is to be included both in-text and on a Works Cited page. This format is used for English and some other humanities courses and includes stylistic conventions for the format of the essay as well as for the citations.

Similarly, the American Psychological Association (APA) has its own form of citation and formatting that is most often utilized by courses in the social sciences. Yet another style of citation is the Chicago Manual of Style, which is often used in research papers for history and some humanities courses.

You should always check with your professor about which citation format to use.

For specific information on the guidelines for in-text, bibliographic, and footnote/endnote citation, see the links below:

The Owl at Purdue: APA Style Citation

The Owl at Purdue: Chicago Style Citation

The Owl at Purdue: MLA Citation

UT Libraries: Citing Sources

Avoiding Plagiarism

In your classes, you’ll be reminded by your teachers often that plagiarism is against University rules and constitutes academic dishonesty.  Even if your professor doesn’t mention it, the HilltopicsStudent Handbook reminds all students in every course at the University of Tennessee to abide by the Honor Statement:

An essential feature of the University of Tennessee is a commitment to maintaining an atmosphere of intellectual integrity and academic honesty. As a student of the university, I pledge that I will neither knowingly give nor receive any inappropriate assistance in academic work, thus affirming my own personal commitment to honor and integrity. (12)

You may know that plagiarism is bad, but do you know exactly what it is and how plagiarism occurs? Committing plagiarism means representing someone else’s ideas, thoughts or words as your own.  People plagiarize when they do not give credit to someone else’s “intellectual property” by omitting citations and references.

Furthermore, Hilltopics is specific about what constitutes plagiarism:

Plagiarism is using the intellectual property or product of someone else without giving proper credit. The undocumented use of someone else’s words or ideas in any medium of communication (unless such information is recognized as common knowledge) is a serious offense, subject to disciplinary action that may include failure in a course and/or dismissal from the university. Specific examples of plagiarism are:

    1. Copying without proper documentation (quotation marks and a citation) written or spoken words, phrases, or sentences from any source;
    2. Summarizing without proper documentation (usually a citation) ideas from another source (unless such information is recognized as common knowledge);
    3. Borrowing facts, statistics, graphs, pictorial representations, or phrases without acknowledging the source (unless such information is recognized as common knowledge);
    4. Collaborating on a graded assignment without the instructor’s approval;
    5. Submitting work, either in whole or in part, created by a professional service and used without attribution (e.g., paper, speech, bibliography, or photograph).  (12)

Here are some other examples of plagiarism:

  • You take ideas about a historical event from a history professor’s blog and do not provide credit for those ideas in your history paper.
  • You find a journal article with data accumulated by scientists about Japanese honeysuckle and use it as your own data in a biology paper.
  • You copy Mark Twain’s ideas about humor writing word-for-word in your English paper without any quotation marks.
  • You neglect to provide a citation and reference for information that you have paraphrased.

The consequences for plagiarism can be severe.  For example, you could receive an “F” for a course if you forget to include a Works Cited page with your paper! To avoid being accused of plagiarism, you need to give credit to the concepts, facts, ideas and words you find from other sources and use in your papers.  You give credit by properly using quotations or paraphrases and always providing correct citation and reference information whenever you do so.

If you are ever in doubt about whether you have properly cited source material, be sure to check with your professor or visit the Writing Center.

Other Useful Links:

See the UTK Library’s website on plagiarism.

See also UNC Chapel Hill’s handout on plagiarism.

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