Analytical Essay On Intelligence Testing

Intelligence Testing Essay

Jensen, (1969) noted that "intelligence, like electricity is easier to measure than to define". Although it may seem paradoxical, psychologists have developed a number of valuable and reliable measures to assess intelligence in the absence of a totally satisfactory definition.

Intellectual assessment involves the administration of interpretation of tests measuring intellectual ability to a given person(s)at any one point in time . Less than twenty years ago only a handful of well developed instruments were available to the examiners . Today the situation has dramatically changed . The overall effect has been to give clinicians a wider range of choice in what they measure and how they measure it.

Tests of measuring psychometric abilities are the most commonly used to assess intelligence in the clinical field. Intelligence batteries of this category tend to be interpreted with respect to a model of the structure of abilities that itself is based on findings from factor analysis . Four main types of tests will be discussed in brief detail, 1. Verbal 2. Non-verbal 3. Culture fair and 4.Group tests.

Verbal tests which assess intelligence require the use and knowledge of vocabulary in the administration and performance of the test. There are numerous examples including the Stanford- Binet Test and the Wechsler Scales. The Wechsler Scales which were in fact developed without the use of factor analysis. The Scales were first produced in 1938 with regular updates the best example being the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale or WAIS . A computer version of this test is also available. A verbal intelligence, performance intelligence and overall intelligence score can be obtained from the WAIS . The reliability of full scale WAIS scale in high and the reliability of the verbal and performance scales is only slightly lower . However, it does not measure extreme IQ's well . It has also been considered to be culturally biased...

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I. INTRODUCTION: The United States Intelligence community draws on advanced technology and analytical techniques. An intelligence process that sets objectives, collects, analyzes, and report findings, with feedback loops integrated throughout. Explicitly, the intelligence community advantages technology and tradecraft within a proscribed process. However, estimation of threats and decision-making are outcomes of human thinking. Analysts and policymakers create mental models, or short cuts to manage complex, changing environments. In other words, to make sense of ambiguous or uncertain situations, humans form cognitive biases. Informed because of personal experience, education, and specifically applied to intelligence analysis, Davis…show more content…

As such, actor ‘A’ projects an image or cognitive bias onto actor ‘B’ as if actor ‘B’ would see the world, or approach a problem in the same way as actor ‘A’ (George and Bruce 2008, 315).
III. HISTORICAL EXAMPLES OF MIRROR IMAGING: In the often-cited work, Psychology of Intelligence Analysis, Heuer provides many examples that apply cognitive psychology to explain how biases trap analysts’ judgments. In Chapter Six, Heuer calls upon Admiral Jeremiah’s comments on the surprise Indian nuclear test in 1998, and quotes Admiral Jeremiah explicitly concerning mirror imaging as, “everybody-thinks-like-us mind-set” (Heuer 1998, Chapter Six). Particularly concerning why the Indian nuclear test was such a surprise, Heuer explains a faulty assumption held by the United States. In that, the United States economic sanctions would deter an Indian nuclear test. A more recent example of bias is toward China. Johnston recalls the 1998 Tiananmen Square massacre of Chinese student’s pro-Democracy rallies. The prevailing mind-set was, according to Johnston, “any right minded person in China would support democracy” (Johnston 2005, 76). The prevailing assumption was Chinese elites would negotiate with the protesters, rather than risk any unwarranted violent military action that risked international backlash. However, Johnston notes, “I was wrong” (Johnston 2005, 77).
Johnston offers as reason, the lack of proper context of understanding Chinese culture, and

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